Vision or Delusion: The Thin Line Between Optimism and Fraud

July 02, 2023 13 mins read

It takes 20 years to build a reputation and five minutes to ruin it. If you think about that, you’ll do things differently.

Warren Buffet

Dear Reader,

Entrepreneurship is a rollercoaster ride – exhilarating, unpredictable, and rewarding, yet fraught with ethical dilemmas, especially in the high-stakes world of startups.

Tempted to oversell a feature to a prospect or inflate your deal pipeline to an investor? Each decision in these grey areas influences your venture’s trajectory and reputation.

Where does visionary optimism end and outright fraud begin? When does ‘fake it till you make it’ turn into deception? Can startup pressures justify blurring the boundaries?

How the hell can you challenge an incumbent, gain traction, or drive growth without a bit of embellishment? The investor is demanding progress, the customer wants features, and you just want to give your baby a fighting chance.


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This is not a conversation about infamous frauds like Theranos, Frank, IRL or FTX, faking it is done. It’s about addressing the precarious reality many founders face – the silent struggle towards an ethical minefield where fact and vision, ambition, and morality grapple for dominance.

It’s about having a candid conversation around aspects of startup life that every founder wrestles with, you’re not alone. I’ve seen top execs teaching sales teams to sell the future, VCs pushing founders into tight corners with growth threats, and desperate founders changing personas just to survive another day.

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It Will Be Fine If I Execute

Startup life pushes founders towards a ‘do now, fix later’ or a ‘ask for a forgiveness not permission’ mentality. This high-pressure environment can raise ethical dilemmas, making the route of least resistance appear deceptively appealing.

Snapchat. The promise of ephemeral messaging to its users, a promise that fell short. Instead of correcting their course, they surged ahead, eventually settling with the FTC. Despite this, the co-founders became billionaires, the investors won, the startup dream achieved, leaving a confusing message for other founders.

Snapchat’s success, despite its ethical missteps, sparks a challenging debate. When the rules seem skewed, the temptation to stray can be overwhelming. Cases like Snapchat are outliers, not benchmarks.

Snapchat underscores the stark reality that the startup landscape is fraught with ethical traps. It’s a reminder to remain vigilant and consider the actual price of success?

The Ethical Grey Areas of Startup Growth

As a startup founder, you’re bound to face challenges that push the limits between ambitious vision and ethical decision-making.

Here’s a fun scenario: A tech journalist approaches you for a feature about your AI startup. They’re under the impression that your product uses advanced machine learning algorithms to deliver personalized content to users. While your vision aligns with this, in reality, you’re currently relying on a handful of engineers manually curating content. While their understanding aligns with your future vision, it doesn’t represent the present reality.

Do you correct their misunderstanding, potentially forfeiting valuable publicity or, do you seize the opportunity, banking on the imminent development of the “technology”?

To many, the decision to exploit the situation seems straightforward. The resultant publicity could attract investors, accelerating your development and delivering the momentum you need. If the truth emerges later, you’d have hopefully reached the feature point, making the point moot. But, what if the truth surfaces prematurely? The fallout could be disastrous. Are you evaluating the odds of being exposed or the ethics of the decision?

The lure of growth and fear of missing out (FOMO) can blur ethical lines. Your decisions in such situations carry long-term implications, shaping your company’s culture and reputation. Remember the rapid decline of WeWork when the gaps in its business model surfaced, turning perceived optimism into a perception of deception, triggering a rapid decline from a $47 billion valuation to less than $10 billion?

Startups are more than innovative products or growth figures; they are reflections of the values and conduct of their founders. Your ethical decisions shape your startup’s culture and its long-term trajectory. These tough choices, navigating the grey areas, define your startup’s ethics and values.

The Dark Triad: A Reality Check

The ‘Dark Triad’ sounds ominous, and it is. It’s a term psychologists use to describe a trio of negative personality traits: narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy. These traits, while potentially harmful, exist on a spectrum and harnessed intelligently will contribute to a founder’s success.

Imagine your startup is finally making headway, but with intense competition and high growth expectations, the pressure is enormous. Some might resort to a Machiavellian approach, manipulating circumstances and individuals to reach their goals. Whilst this may yield immediate results, the long-term implications of a growth-at-all-costs mindset can foster a toxic work environment, leading to high staff turnover, legal implications, and overall impact to performance.

Each trait of the Dark Triad has potential for both positive and negative outcomes. Narcissism might fuel a founder’s self-confidence and belief in their vision, but excessive self-focus can blind them to potential pitfalls. Machiavellianism might manifest as strategic thinking, but can become destructive when it devolves into manipulative behavior. Psychopathy, characterized by fearlessness and stress tolerance, can cross the line into unethical decisions and a toxic company culture devoid of empathy and remorse.

Uber’s co-founder, Travis Kalanick’s story, exemplifies this delicate balance. His self-confidence (narcissism), strategic thinking (Machiavellianism), and fearlessness (psychopathy) fueled Uber’s rapid growth. But when these traits transformed into their destructive counterparts, it led to legal troubles, a toxic work culture, and eventually, his resignation.

As a founder, self-awareness is crucial. Acknowledge these traits within yourself, leverage their positive aspects, and remain vigilant against slipping into their harmful extremes.

The Big Fish And The Startups: Shared Accountability

Accountability in a startup extends beyond founders and execs; it’s shared with every stakeholder and employee who contributes. Taking shortcuts in code, keeping a toxic client because of cashflow, accepting job applications from competitors, or participating in a sales call discussing a non-existent feature, each action weaves into the ethical fabric of the startup.

According to the 2023 Deloitte Ethics Survey, 70% of millennials and Gen Zers would consider leaving a job if their company’s ethics didn’t align with their own.

Consider a founder receiving an acquisition offer. Surely the ultimate reward for the hard work, literally, everything you have been working towards. But what if the offer comes from a company with questionable business practices or clashing values where you don’t think they will take care of your customers or your employees or you know they intend to shut down the service post acquisition?

Weighing the financial gain against personal values is just the start. What obligation do you have to your customers who trust your startup? And what about your employees?

What about your shareholders. Declining the offer is likely neglecting the company’s financial best interests, possibly leading to shareholder backlash. Conversely, accepting the offer risks tarnishing your reputation and screwing your employees. It could also damage the reputation of the startup you’ve built, and it’s standing in the marketplace even without you at the helm.

Navigating such situations is complex, the ‘take the money and run’ approach may not always be the best one. It’s in these critical moments that your startup’s ethical backbone is truly tested. Are you striving for more than just a financial exit, a mission-driven approach or creating lasting value?

Reality Distortion Field: Visionary Leadership vs Pseudo-Cultism

The Reality Distortion Field (RDF), a term coined for Steve Jobs, represents the charismatic force of founders. Its positive manifestation can inspire unprecedented innovation, as seen when Jobs’ RDF propelled Apple to create revolutionary products like the iPhone.

However, unchecked RDF can blur ethical boundaries, creating a pseudo-cultish environment. In this aura of charisma, teams will sideline ethical norms, oversell product capabilities and compromise their integrity.

An overpowering RDF can stifle dissent and challenging opinions. It can subtly transition from visionary leadership to a form of dictatorship, drastically altering the startup culture.

The true challenge for founders is not just to wield their RDF to inspire and motivate but also to ensure that it does not suppress ethical conduct, realism, or diverse voices. A healthy startup culture values these aspects as much as visionary thinking.

A Lesson from the Uber-Lyft War: God-like Success at What Cost?

Startup warfare is ruthless, often leaving no room for the ‘nice guys.’ It’s a battlefield where ethics are tested against relentless competition. The ride-sharing giants, Uber and Lyft, serve as an apt illustration.

Lyft, dubbed the ‘good guy,’ opted for fairness, friendliness, and reliability, shunning dubious practices. In contrast, Uber adopted a win-at-all-costs mentality, triggering several controversies – from flouting regulations to fostering a toxic work culture. Yet, when you need a ride, which app do you open?

Lyft has always struggled to counter Uber’s aggressive tactics. They let Uber wage the regulatory battles, but failed to further leverage their ‘good guy’ image. Lyft stuck to their single service, allowing Uber to maintain market dominance even amid scandalous turmoil.

The narrative doesn’t imply ethics and success are mutually exclusive. Instead, it highlights the intricate interplay between business strategy, competition, and ethics in the startup realm.

An ethical foundation cultivates a loyal customer base, offering an edge in a scandal-plagued industry. Yet, to convert this into sustained competitive advantage, startups need diversified, aggressive, yet ethically sound growth strategies.

The real challenge lies in balancing innovation, growth, and ethics. A ‘win at all costs’ approach may promise short-term gains, but at what cost? Are the long-term reputation damages worth it? Conversely, merely being the ‘good guy’ without a robust, diversified growth strategy may leave you trailing. In the relentless world of startups, god-like success and market dominance often overshadow the ‘nice guy’.

Treading the Brutal Path: The Unvarnished Truth of Startup Life

The reality of startups is harsh – they are as much about the vision and people behind them as they are about the hard truth that many startups will fail. As a founder, it’s a bitter pill to swallow, yet it’s a fundamental part of the startup experience.

Sometimes, the startup’s demise is just lack of product-market fit, insufficient funding, or simply put: it doesn’t work. At times, the signs of failure are so subtle that you’re the only one who can see them. The odds of getting found out might be so low that you’re tempted to veer into an ethical gray zone as you scramble to keep your vision alive.

Your identity is separate from your startup. A failing startup doesn’t equate to personal failure. It’s okay if your LinkedIn profile reads, “Venture Funded StartUp, Did Not Achieve PMF.” It’s not an embarrassment – it’s an experience.

In the face of adversity, it’s crucial not to morph into an endlessly fundraising founder, driven by desperation rather than vision. If your startup isn’t working, pivot, persevere, but if it’s evident that it’s not going to make it, know when to shut it down – not quit, but close the chapter with dignity.

Be the founder you aspire to be, not the one circumstances push you to become.

Deciphering Startup Mantras: Inspiring Boldness or Fueling Recklessness?

Startup mantras are not strategies—they’re catalysts meant to spark innovation. Unchecked fire is destructive, so use the spark wisely to light up the path to responsible growth and sustainable success.

Mantras serve as potent battle cries. “Move fast and break things,” or “ask for forgiveness, not permission” – these catchphrases symbolize the Silicon Valley spirit that fuels innovation and disruption. Sources of inspiration, not mandates for instigation.

The power of a mantra lies in its interpretation. Does “move fast” mean sidestepping due diligence? Does “break things” imply disregarding ethical boundaries? A mantra misinterpreted transforms a call for daring innovation into a reckless rampage.

Zenefits, emboldened by the mantra of “move fast and break things,” began to bypass crucial regulatory checks, a disastrous shortcut that resulted in severe penalties and a tarnished reputation. The mantra, intended to propel growth, instead fueled damaging practices that inflicted harm on the company, its stakeholders, and its founder.

Be bold, be audacious, but always stay conscious of the consequences. Your mantra should inspire you to push boundaries responsibly, not instigate a blind pursuit of growth.

If You Got This Far: The Philosophy Of Ethics

For anyone that didn’t watch “The Good Place” – It’s important to understand the two major schools of basic philosophical theories that underpin our understanding of ethics; Deontology and consequentialism.

Deontology argues that the ethics of an action should be judged based on the action itself. For example, lying is considered unethical, regardless of its consequences. On the other hand, consequentialism states that the morality of an action should be evaluated based on its results. For instance, if lying leads to a greater good, it may be seen as ethical.

The startup discovers a data breach or a security flaw in its system. From a deontological viewpoint, the startup should disclose this breach to its customers immediately because transparency and honesty are ethically right. A consequentialist perspective might argue that if the breach is minor and unlikely to compromise any customer data, not disclosing it might be the ethically right action as it prevents unnecessary panic and maintains customer trust.

The startup is gaining some traction, but they’re running out of funds. From a deontological perspective, the startup should disclose its financial situation to investors, even if it risks losing their support. A consequentialist might argue that if the startup is confident that the traction will happen, keeping the investors in the dark might be ethical as it ensures the survival of the startup.

Even your employees, where the startup is facing financial difficulties. From a deontological viewpoint, the management should be transparent about the situation to the employees, as this is the honest course of action. A consequentialist might argue that this disclosure would cause widespread panic and impact productivity, it might be ethical to withhold the information until a clear plan is in place to address the financial issue.

It’s essential to remember that an ends-justify-the-means approach, often associated with consequentialism, does not serve as a coverall to commit fraudulent activities. The success of a startup built on unethical practices or outright fraud is not only morally wrong but also unsustainable in the long run.

Challenge For The Week

Our weekly challenge is not designed to ask you if you’re a fraud. Instead, it’s about self-reflection and understanding who you are and what you stand for.

This week, write down your core ethical values as a founder. This is now your ‘ethical compass’, guiding you through potential ethical dilemmas. Do you even know your values?

Until next Sunday, challenge the status quo, but let it be a challenge grounded in integrity.

— James

(LinkedIn | Twitter | Tiktok)

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